Country/Region: China Mainland
Published PE Recommendations

China Guidelines for Pharmacoeconomic Evaluations (2011)
PDF in Chinese

Published PE Recommendations Source:
Additional Information:
Information up to date as of Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Published PE Recommendations Key Features:

Key Features:  
Title and year of the document
China Guidelines for Pharmacoeconomic Evaluations (2011) 
Affiliation of authors
Peking University, Fudan University, China Pharmaceutical University, Tianjin University, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MHRSS), PLA 306 Hospital, and many others 
Purpose of the document
Provide scientific basis for researchers to conduct economic analysis of medicines for pricing and reimbursement policy making in China 
Standard reporting format included
Target audience of funding/ author's interests
Both public and private payers, healthcare industries, clinicians, and research communities 
Primarily society, followed by payers, employer, health care provider, patients 
Primarily approved indications 
Target population
Both insured and uninsured populations, defined by inclusion and exclusion criteria 
Subgroup analysis
Choice of comparator
Primarily standard care or conventional treatment 
Time horizon
Long enough to capture the major costs and outcomes related to the interventions. 
Assumptions required
Preferred analytical technique
Primarily CUA 
Costs to be included
Primarily direct medical costs, followed by direct non-medical cost and indirect cost if data available. 
Source of costs
Primarily from Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MHRSS), Ministry of Health, and National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) 
Yes, both decision-tree and econometric frameworks 
Systematic review of evidences
Preference for effectiveness over efficacy
Yes. If efficacy is the only indicator available, it should be converted into effectiveness by means of appropriate models. 
Preferred outcome measure
Final Endpoints; QALY; WTP 
Preferred method to derive utility
Three direct valuation methods such as SG (Standard Gamble), TTO (Time Trade-Off), and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) are recommended. Four indirect valuation methods such as EQ-5D (EuroQol-5 Dimensions), SF-6D (Short-Form Six-Dimensions), HUI (Health Utilities Index), and QWB (Quality of Well-Being) are recommended. 
Equity issues stated
Discounting costs
Base case: one year interest rate; sensitivity analysis: 0-8% 
Discounting outcomes
Base case: one year interest rate; sensitivity analysis: 0-8% 
Sensitivity analysis-parameters and range
All assumptions should be subject to sensitivity analysis. 
Sensitivity analysis-methods
One-way, multi-way, threshold analysis, analysis of extremes, scenario analysis, Monte Carlo simulation 
Presenting results
Reports both in disaggregated and aggregated form. 
Incremental analysis
Total costs vs effectiveness (cost/effectiveness ratio)
Portability of results (Generalizability)
Yes, PE study should address the extent to which both the input data and the results can be applied from one setting to another, both domestically and internationally if cross-country data is involved 
Financial impact analysis
Yes, budget impact analysis is recommended when data is available 
Mandatory or recommended or voluntary
Voluntary for now to start, expecting to be recommended in a few years 

Acknowledgement: ISPOR Beijing Chapter and ISPOR Northeast China Regional Chapter highly contributed to the Guidelines development and the key feature form. Should you have any comments and suggestions, please email

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