Boston, MA, USA
Crystallise Ltd., East Tilbury, UK
METHODS: We searched the heoro.com database (www.heoro.com) for PRO studies on bipolar disorder published between 1960 and December 16 2016, and analysed the abstracts identified by the search to determine the different PRO instruments cited across the range of geographical locations and interventions. We presented the findings as an evidence map. RESULTS: We found a total of 127 abstracts that reported the use of 85 different PRO instruments. Of these 85 instruments, 19 were specific for bipolar disorder, depression or mania, 45 were general instruments used to evaluate quality of life, functioning or utilities, nine assessed other conditions or diseases that were common comorbidities of people with bipolar disorder, including anxiety, eight assessed treatments or adherence, three evaluated the impact of the disease on work productivity and one assessed caregiver burden. The most frequently used tool was the SF-36, cited in 26 abstracts, followed by the Young Mania Rating Scale (18 abstracts), Q-LES-Q (17 abstracts), Hamilton Depression scale (15), MADRS (13) and SF-12 and WHOQOL-BREF (10 each). The United States was the most common setting, with 56 abstracts, followed by the United Kingdom (8 abstracts), Canada and Italy (7 abstracts each), then Australia, Brazil and Spain (6 abstracts each). Drug interventions were assessed in 28 abstracts,and psychological interventions in 15.
CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of PRO tools have been used in studies of bipolar disorder, but only ten tools were cited in more than five abstracts each. Research into the quality of life in bipolar disorder has generally been assessed from a US perspective.